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Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: EndNote X9

Retiring our EndNote X9 support page


We will be retiring our EndNote X9 support page in the coming weeks as our licence has now rolled over to the new release, EndNote 20. We would advise our patrons to download and install new version of EndNote.

Endnote X9 support page will be retired on 1st October 2021

See our EndNote 20 support page for more details.

What is EndNote?

EndNote is a popular reference management software which enables you to store, organise and retrieve your references in one place. You can easily cite them in your work and produce bibliographies in a variety of referencing styles.

Once you've imported your references into EndNote, the Cite While You Write tool gives you direct access to your references from Microsoft Word documents.

EndNote for Windows

EndNote for Macintosh

Why should I use EndNote?

Watch this short introduction video for an overview of the benefits of using EndNote.

Specialist Library Support - EndNote

Our specialist library support publication provide expert help, guidance and training across a range of specialist areas.

The referencing support section includes several elements to assist you with using the EndNote software.

How do I get help?

Online support

EndNote have produced a series of comprehensive online user guides. You can find this information from their EndNote training guide. (

Video tutorials

EndNote also has a YouTube channel where you can watch recordings of some of the free online classes on offer.

The EndNote support pages contain video demonstrations which give an overview of all of EndNote's key features:



The EndNote website also includes a comprehensive list of FAQs, which are a great place to start if you encounter any issues in using EndNote.

Advanced Endnote FAQs

Finding the full text for references in EndNote

You can use EndNote to find the full-text articles for references in your EndNote library. To do this, you need to set EndNote up to connect to our e-journal subscriptions. 

Downloading Output Styles

You can find and download new or updated styles from the EndNote website at

These can be saved to your Styles folder (if you are using your own copy of EndNote on your own computer) or to a location (eg your P:\ drive) if you are working on the University network.

Editing Output Styles

Output styles determine how your citations and bibliography will be displayed in a Word document.

There are over 5000 output styles available in EndNote x5 and you can also edit styles or create new styles yourself using the Style Manager function in EndNote.

As creating new styles can be time-consuming, it is usually advisable to find a style that closely matches the one you need and make any changes to it accordingly.

To edit styles:

  • In EndNote, select Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager…
  • Select a style to edit (eg Harvard) by highlighting it in the list of styles and clicking Edit

The Editing template screen will be displayed. This is grouped into four sections – Citations, Bibliography, Footnotes and Figures & Tables – along with some general options for handling anonymous works, page numbering, abbreviated journal titles and document sections. 

The most common request at The University of Manchester is to edit the Harvard style so that authors’ names display in normal case rather than UPPER CASE.

  • Select Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager…
  • Choose Harvard from the list of styles in the Style Manager and click the Edit button
  • In the Bibliography section, select ‘Author Name’
  • At the Capitalization: prompt, change from ‘All Uppercase’ to ‘Normal’
  • Select File > Save As and rename the style to save it as a new style eg Harvard New.ens

Saving changes to output styles

If you are using your own computer, you can save edited styles to the Style Folder.

On University networked PCs, you will not be able to save changes in the Style folder but can save them to your P:\ drive or a memory stick.

You will then need to change EndNote’s preferences to find the style you have created:

  • Select Edit > Preferences > Folder Locations > Style Folder and change the location to the place you saved your edited style.

 In Word, this style will now appear when you choose the edited style from the list of options available.

Using footnotes with EndNote

You can use EndNote to create footnotes in your Word document using Word’s own References tools.

  • In the References tab in Word, select Insert Footnote (AB1)

The cursor should now be in place in the footnote section of the document.

From the EndNote toolbar in Word:

  • Choose Insert Citation > Find Citation… to look up a reference
  • Click on Insert to add the citation details to the footnote section of your Word document

The appearance of the footnotes will depend on the referencing style you are using. The most commonly used output style for footnotes is the Chicago 15th style but you can choose any style to format your footnotes.

  • Using EndNote’s Style Manager, choose a style to edit and select the Footnotes > Templates section.
  • At the Format citations in footnotes: prompt, select Same as bibliography, Same as citations or Using footnotes format.

Note: To use the footnotes format as your footnote style option, you would need to create a template to display the fields you require in the “footnotes format”. If you do not select any fields to display, the footnotes in Word will appear blank.

Creating section bibliographies

If you are working within one Word document but have several sections (eg chapters) within it, EndNote gives you the option to create either:

  • a single bibliography at the end of the document
  • separate bibliographies for each chapter
  • bibliographies at the end of each chapter with a cumulative bibliography of all references at the end

 To select a section bibliography style in EndNote:

  • Select Edit > Output Styles
  • Select Open Style Manager
  • Choose the style you want to work with and click Edit

In the style template there is a Sections option. Select this and then choose the section bibliography option you want to use. Save the changes and close the Style Manager.

You can then create sections within your Word document and EndNote will format your bibliography as specified.

  • To set up sections in your Word document, select Page Layout > Breaks > Section Breaks > Next page

Merging separate Word documents into a single document with a single bibliography

If you have been working on several Word documents using EndNote (such as chapters for your thesis) you will then need to bring them together to submit a final document.

You can merge separate chapters, each with their own EndNote library, into one master document with a single, cumulative bibliography at the end. To do this:

  • Make a copy of each chapter (to preserve your original versions, in case anything goes wrong!) eg ch1-copy.doc, ch2-copy.doc, ch3-copy.doc
  • Open each document in Word and from the EndNote tools select Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations  

  This will remove the bibliography at the end of each chapter and change the citations into unformatted text eg {Yamazaki, 1995 #154}

  • Copy the content of ch2-copy.doc to the end of ch1-copy.doc, then repeat the process for each remaining chapter
  • When you have all the text in a single document, you can reformat the citations
  • In the EndNote tools, select Update Citations and Bibliography
  • Save the finished document as mastercopy.doc or something similar

Removing EndNote field codes for submission to journals

You need to remove any EndNote code from your Word document before submitting it for journal publication. To do this, select the Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Plain Text command in Word.

Note: Be aware that once you have done this in a document you cannot then reformat citations in the document using EndNote.

Exporting a travelling library

You can share references in Word documents with other authors or retrieve EndNote references from a Word document where the original EndNote library has been lost using the Travelling Library function. 

  • In Word, select EndNote > Export to EndNote > Export Travelling Library
  • Choose to add the references to an existing library or to create a new one for the exported records

Recovering a deleted library

If you accidentally delete an EndNote library (mylibrary.enl) you can recover it from the corresponding Data folder (

The Data folder is created alongside the library and holds files such as PDFs and images that you attach to records.

  • Open WordPad or Notepad from the Programs > Accessories menu on your computer and create a blank document
  • Select File > Save As… and save the blank document in the same area as the Data folder and with the same name as the Data folder eg P:\mylibrary.enl

 The file should then appear as an EndNote library which can be opened and used.

Transferring references from EndNote to EndNote online

  • In EndNote desktop click on the Sync icon  .
  • At the logon prompt use your EndNote online email address and password
  • Your references should now be transferred

Transferring references from EndNote online to EndNote.

  • In EndNote online, select the Format tab and choose Export References
  • Select the group (folder) of references to export
  • Choose Export Style: EndNote Export
  • Click Save and save the file as a .txt file In EndNote desktop, select File > Import > File… and select the .txt file you have downloaded
  • Choose Import Option: EndNote Import
  • Click Import to add the references to your EndNote desktop library

Word count without EndNote Referencing

For people who want to create a word count that does not include any EndNote citations or references this can be accomplished by creating your own EndNote style that omits citations and reference lists.

To create your own style

  • Open EndNote Desktop
  • Select Edit > Output Styles > New Style...
  • Select File > Save As...
  • Name the style 'Word Count Style'
  • Save

Now you can open up your document in word and change the style to 'Word Count Style' and all your citations and references will disappear. Conduct your word count and then revert the style to the one of your choosing.

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