Skip to Main Content

Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: American Psychological Association APA

Disclaimer

The information contained within these pages is intended as a general referencing guideline.

Please check with your supervisor to ensure that you are following the specific guidelines required by your school.

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is used predominantly in Social Science subject areas.

Within the citation it displays much like Harvard, utilising the  'Author-Date' standard format.

 

The information detailed within this webpage is based on the Books:

Pears, R., & Shields, Graham J., author. (2016). Cite them right : The essential referencing guide (Tenth revised and expanded ed., Palgrave study skills).
Library Search link: Cite them right : the essential referencing guide

 

American Psychological Association, a. (2019). Publication manual of the american psychological association (Seventh edition. ed.). American Psychological Association. 
Library Search link: Publication manual of the american psychological association

 

APA 7th Citations and References

Your list of references links with your in-text citations and enables the reader to trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which any direct quotations or examples have been taken.

Nota Bene: A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is not usually required. However, you should always check this with your tutor first.

Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and then, where necessary, by year of publication.

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The APA system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type; these are detailed below. 
Adapted and reproduced from the seventh edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2019 https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references

Blog and video blog posts

Required elements

  • Author (surname and initials)
  • Year and post date: in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title
  • URL

In-text citation

...where they elucidate the change of environment (Binfield, 2008)....

Binfield (2008) elucidates the change of environment (Binfield, 2008)....

Parenthetical citation: (Ouellette, 2019)
Narrative citation:: Ouellette (2019)

Reference list entry

Binfield, P. (2008, September 9). At PLoS ONE we're batty about bats [Web log message].  Retrieved from https://www.plos.org/cms/trackback/398

Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technicahttps://arstechnica.com/science/2019/11/study-you-can-tie-a-quantum-knot-in-a-superfluid-but-it-will-soon-untie-itself/

Books

Required elements

  • Provide the author, year of publication, title, and publisher of the book.
  • Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
  • If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and is an ebook from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Jackson, 2019; Sapolsky, 2017)
Narrative citation: Jackson (2019) and Sapolsky (2017)

 

Reference list entry:

Book

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Book - Electronic version

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000

Book (electronic only)

Required elements

Also note that print and electronic references are largely the same. For example, to cite both print books and ebooks, use the books and reference works category and then choose the appropriate type of work (see above)

Chapter from an edited book

Required elements

  • If the edited book chapter includes a DOI, include the chapter DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the edited book chapter does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the edited book chapter reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print edited book chapter.
  • Include any edition information in the same parentheses as the page range of the chapter, separated with a comma.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Aron et al., 2019; Dillard, 2020)
Narrative citation: Aron et al. (2019) and Dillard (2020)

 

Reference list entry

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Conference proceedings (print/online)

Conference proceedings published in a journal

Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesUSA116(47), 23499–23504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910510116

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Duckworth et al., 2019)
Narrative citation: Duckworth et al. (2019)

 

Conference proceedings published as a whole book

Kushilevitz, E., & Malkin, T. (Eds.). (2016). Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 9562. Theory of cryptography. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49096-9

Parenthetical citation: (Kushilevitz & Malkin, 2016)
Narrative citation: Kushilevitz and Malkin (2016)

NB: Conference proceedings published as a whole book follow the same reference format as whole edited books.

Conference proceedings published as a book chapter

Paper:

Bedenel, A.-L., Jourdan, L., & Biernacki, C. (2019). Probability estimation by an adapted genetic algorithm in web insurance. In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, & P. Pardalos (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 11353. Learning and intelligent optimization (pp. 225–240). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05348-2_21

Parenthetical citation: (Bedenel et al., 2019)
Narrative citation: Bedenel et al. (2019)

NB: The format for conference proceedings published as an edited book chapter is the same as for edited book chapters.

Edited books

Required elements

  • Use the abbreviation “(Ed.)” for one editor and the abbreviation “(Eds.)” for multiple editors after the editor names, followed by a period. In the case of multiple editors, include the role once, after all the names.
  • Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
  • If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and is an ebook from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Kesharwani, 2020; Torino et al., 2019)
Narrative citation: Kesharwani (2020) and Torino et al. (2019)

 

Reference list entry

Kesharwani, P. (Ed.). (2020). Nanotechnology based approaches for tuberculosis treatment. Academic Press.

Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2019). Microaggression theory: Influence and implications. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119466642

Government publications

Required elements

When selecting a category, use the webpages and websites category only when a work does not fit better within another category. For example, a report from a government website would use the reports category, whereas a page on a government website that is not a report or other work would use the webpages and websites category.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (National Cancer Institute, 2019)
Narrative citation:: National Cancer Institute (2019)

 

Reference list entry

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

 

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Published

With published interviews, you should cite and reference them in the format you used them. If you read an article or watched a documentary then you should present it in that format..
 

NB: For interviews and oral histories recorded in an archive, list the interviewee as the author. Include the interviewer’s name in the description.

In-text citation

Iannucci (2017) thinks that we’re still figuring out people like Trump is because he sort of satirises himself.
Parenthetical citation: (Smith, 1989)
Narrative citation: Smith (1989)

Reference list entry

Iannucci, A. (2017, April 19). Armando Iannucci: 'You're on a highway to nowhere if you think jokes are going to stop Donald Trump'. Interview with Armando Ianucci. Interviewed by Daniel Dylan Wray for The Independent, p69.

Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President’s Oral History Project, American Psychological Association, APA Archives, Washington, DC, United States.

Unpublished

For unpublished works, e.g. an interview you conducted in which the interviewee agreed to be quoted, you can cite it as a personal communication.

In-text citation

The manager conceded the point that the value of 'water cooler moments' was vastly underrated (M. Phillips, personal communication, July 26, 2001).

Nota bene: You do not include this in your reference list as there is no copy available for the reader to view.

Journal articles (electronic/printed)

Required elements

  • If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference.
  • Always include the issue number for a journal article.
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. The reference in this case is the same as for a print journal article.
  • Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes works of limited circulation or original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate (link to APA guide).
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Grady et al., 2019)
Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019)

Reference list entry

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Newspapers print/online

Required elements

  • In the source element of the reference, provide at minimum the title of the newspaper in italic title case.
  • If the newspaper article is from an online newspaper that has a URL that will resolve for readers (as in the Carey example), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. If volume, issue, and/or page numbers for the article are missing, omit these elements from the reference.
  • If you used a print version of the newspaper article (as in the Harlan example), provide the page or pages of the article after the newspaper title. Do not include the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.” before the page(s).
  • If the newspaper article is from an academic research database, provide the title of the newspaper and any volume, issue, and/or page numbers that are available for the article. Do not include database information in the reference. If the article does not have volume, issue, or page numbers available, the reference in this case ends with the title of the newspaper (as in the Stobbe example).
  • If the article is from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a webpage on a news website instead.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citations: (Carey, 2019; Harlan, 2013; Stobbe, 2020)
Narrative citations: Carey (2019), Harlan (2013), and Stobbe (2020)

Reference list entry

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

Harlan, C. (2013, April 2). North Korea vows to restart shuttered nuclear reactor that can make bomb-grade plutonium. The Washington Post, A1, A4.

Stobbe, M. (2020, January 8). Cancer death rate in U.S. sees largest one-year drop ever. Chicago Tribune.

Online videos (vimeo, youtube)

Required elements

  • Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
  • If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text if it is important for readers to know. However, if that would mean citing a source that appears unauthoritative, you might also look for the author’s YouTube channel, official website, or other social media to see whether the same video is available elsewhere.
  • Provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded.
  • Italicize the title of the video.
  • Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide the site name (YouTube) and URL of the video.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019)
Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)

Reference list entry

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

Podcasts

Required elements

  • The format for a podcast transcript is nearly the same as for a podcast episode (see Example 94 in the Publication Manual). The only difference is that the description after the transcript title is “[Audio podcast transcript]” rather than “[Audio podcast].”
  • Provide the name of the host of the podcast as the author and include their role in parentheses.
  • Provide the specific date of the podcast.
  • Provide the episode number after the title in parentheses. If the podcast does not number episodes, omit the number from the reference.
  • Provide the name of the site that published the transcript (in the examples, NPR and Gimlet Media) and the URL of the transcript.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citations: (Cornish, 2017; Vogt & Goldman, 2019)
Narrative citations: Cornish (2017) and Vogt and Goldman (2019)

Reference list entry

Cornish, A. (Host). (2017, May 17). This simple puzzle test sealed the fate of immigrants at Ellis Island [Audio podcast transcript]. In All things considered. NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=528813842

Vogt, P. J., & Goldman, A. (Hosts). (2019, June 27). Dark pattern (No. 144) [Audio podcast transcript]. In Reply all. Gimlet Media. https://gimletmedia.com/shows/reply-all/6nhgol/144-dark-pattern

Press release (online)

Required elements

  • Provide the name of the group that released the press release as the author.
  • Include the description “[Press release]” in square brackets after the title of the press release.
  • When the author and the publisher of the press release are the same, omit the publisher to avoid repetition, as shown in the example.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019)
Narrative citation: U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019)

Reference list entry

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 15). FDA approves first contact lens indicated to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children [Press release]. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-contact-lens-indicated-slow-progression-nearsightedness-children

Theses

Required elements

  • When a dissertation or thesis is unpublished, include the description “[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]” or “[Unpublished master’s thesis]” in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title.
  • In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the institution that awarded the degree.
  • The same format can be adapted for other unpublished theses, including undergraduate theses, by changing the wording of the bracketed description as appropriate.
  • If you find the dissertation or thesis in a database or in a repository or archive, follow the published dissertation or thesis reference examples.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citations: (Kabir, 2016; Miranda, 2019; Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016)
Narrative citations: Kabir (2016), Miranda (2019), and Zambrano-Vazquez (2016)

Parenthetical citation: (Harris, 2014)
Narrative citation: Harris (2014)

Reference list entry

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2309521814.html?FMT=AI

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

⁠Webpage on a Website

Required elements 

  • Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
  • Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  • Provide the writer as the author.
  • Provide the specific date the story was published.
  • Provide the title of the news story in italic sentence case.
  • List the name of the news website in the source element of the reference.
  • End the reference with the URL.

In-text citation

Parenthetical citation: (Bologna, 2019; Woodyatt, 2019)
Narrative citation: Bologna (2019) and Woodyatt (2019)

 

Reference list entry

Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html

Websites (general)

Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites.

To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey.

We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com).

If you are writing online, you can link the name of the site directly so that the link has descriptive text.

We created our survey using Qualtrics.

To cite particular information on a website, determine the reference type (e.g., reportwebpage) and then follow the appropriate format.

Standard rules for APA

There are several ways in which you may want to utilise other people’s ideas in order to add substance to your work. The most common ways to accomplish this are to quote, paraphrase or summarise. (adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010)

Authors

When citing authors:

For corporate or group authors, display the full title of the group author and use an abbreviated version thereafter.

Within your reference list, provide all authors up to seven. The seventh name should be preceded by an ampersand (&).

With more than seven, display the first six followed by ellipses (...).

  1. For works with one to two authors, always include all the names in every citation made within the text
  2. For works with three to five authors, include all the names in the first citation within the text and simply use the first author name with et al (not italicised) for every subsequent entry.
  3. For works with six or more authors, simply include the first author with et al in all citations.

Publication year

The year in parenthesis followed by a full stop.

Example:

(2017).

Title of sources

Source titles are italicised but issues and/or page numbers are not.
 
Example:

Terrill, R. E. (1993). Put on a happy face: Batman as schizophrenic savior. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(3), 319-335.

Edition of work

The abbreviation for edition is ed. enclosed in brackets with a full stop. (8th ed.).

Example:

Pears, R., & Shields, Graham J. (2010). Cite them right : The essential referencing guide (8th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Place of publication

When detailing the place of publication, you should list the city and state (USA). The city should be spelled out and the two letter abbreviation of the state.

Examples:

Burger, J. (1994). Before and after an oil spill : The Arthur Kill. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Reininghaus, F., & Langer, Liesel. (1980). Schubert und das Wirtshaus : Musik unter Metternich (2. Aufl. ed., Bücherei Oberbaum ; 1012). Berlin, Germany: Oberbaumverlag.

Internet resources

Internet resources should be indicated by providing either a Digital Object Identifier (doi) or an URL. This should be in the form of doi: or Retrieved from http...

Examples:

Boyd, H., & Murnen, S. K. (2017). Thin and sexy vs. muscular and dominant: Prevalence of gendered body ideals in popular dolls and action figures. Body Image, 21, 90-96. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.03.003

Curry, L., (2016). Beating the Workplace Bully: A Tactical Guide to Taking Charge [Kindle version] Retrieved from https://www.amazon.co.uk

Secondary sources

When a primary source is not available, you need to cite the primary source within the text and the secondary source within round brackets.

Example:

The wanton destruction of a hidden universe, Franks (as cited in Anderton, 2002, p.27) presumes the decay of a pathetic fallacy...

Reference list

All lines after the first line of a reference are indented... often described as a hanging indentation.

Example:

Clayton, N. S., & Emery, N. J. (2009). What do jays know about other minds and other times? In A. Berthoz & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of Umwelt: How Living Beings Perceive the World (pp. 109-123). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Abbreviations

Here is a list of acceptable abbreviations you can use in APA.

Element

Abbreviation

edition ed.
Revised edition Rev. ed.
second edition 2nd ed.
Editors (Editors) Ed. (Eds.)
Translator(s) Trans.
no date n.d.
page(s) p. (pp.)
Volume(s) Vol. (Vols)
Number No.
Part Pt.
Technical Report Tech. Rep.
Supplement Suppl.

APA 6th Citations and Reference

Your list of references links with your in-text citations and enables the reader to trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which any direct quotations or examples have been taken.

Nota Bene: A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is not usually required. However, you should always check this with your tutor first.

Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and then, where necessary, by year of publication.

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The APA system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type; these are detailed below. (adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010)

Blog and video blog posts

Required elements

  • Author (surname and initials)
  • Year and post date: in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title
  • [Web log message] Or [Blog post] Or [Video file]
  • Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

...where he elucidates the change of environment (Binfield, 2008)....

Reference list entry

Binfield, P. (2008, September 9). At PLoS ONE we're batty about bats [Web log message].  Retrieved from https://www.plos.org/cms/trackback/398

Books

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed electronically

In-text citation

The author places the origins of the cube design in the context of the social history of tea drinking (Anderson & Atterbury, 2004).

Reference list entry:

Book

Anderson, A., & Atterbury, P. (1999). The cube teapot: the story of the patent teapot. Ilminster, England: Richard Dennis.

Book - Electronic version

Pepperberg, I. M. (2009). Alex & me: How a scientist and a parrot discovered a hidden world of animal intelligence — and formed a deep bond in the process  Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Alex-scientist-discovered-intelligence-ebook/dp/B00APOWOXC/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1363823581&sr=1-2&keywords=alex+%26+me

Book (electronic only)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

...discovered a hidden world (Pepperberg, 2009)...

Reference list entry

Pepperberg, I. M. (2009). Alex & me: How a scientist and a parrot discovered a hidden world of animal intelligence — and formed a deep bond in the process  Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Alex-scientist-discovered-intelligence-ebook/dp/B00APOWOXC/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1363823581&sr=1-2&keywords=alex+%26+me

Chapter from an edited book

Required elements

  • Author of the chapter: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the chapter
  • In
  • Name of the editor of the book (Ed.)
  • Title of the book - Italicised
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Page numbers of the chapter in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Crop rotation in the fourteenth century was considerably more widespread (Clayton & Emery, 2009)...

Reference list entry

Clayton, N. S., & Emery, N. J. (2009). What do jays know about other minds and other times? In A. Berthoz & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of Umwelt: How Living Beings Perceive the World (2nd ed., pp. 109-123). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Conference proceedings (print/online)

Required elements

  • Author/Editor: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year and date: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title of conference - Italicised Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title - Italicised preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Location, date of conference - Italicised
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if online

In-text citation

An adaptation of this affect was presented at the same conference (Hagino, Hiryu, Fujioka, Riquimaroux, & Watanabe, 2007)

Reference list entry

Paper:

Hagino, T., Hiryu, S., Fujioka, S., Riquimaroux, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2007, APR 17-20). Adaptive SONAR sounds by echolocating bats. Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Underwater Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

Electronic:

Hagino, T., Hiryu, S., Fujioka, S., Riquimaroux, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2007, APR 17-20). Adaptive SONAR sounds by echolocating bats. Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Underwater Technology, Tokyo, Japan. doi: 10.1109/UT.2007.370829

Edited books

Required elements

  • Editor: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • (Ed.). or (Eds.).
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

...thus resulting in a change in psychology (Vonk & Shackelford, 2012)

Reference list entry

Vonk, J., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Government publications

Required elements

  • Name of government department. Followed by a full stop.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title - Italicised. Preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Report series and number in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online

In-text citation

... changing environment. (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009)

Reference list entry

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009). Guidelines for conducting bird and bat studies at commercial wind energy projects. Albany, NY. Retrieved from https://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/wildlife_pdf/windguidelines.pdf.

Interviews

Published

With published interviews, you should cite and reference them in the format you used them. If you read an article or watched a documentary then you should present it in that format.

In-text citation (newspaper)

Iannucci (2017) thinks that we’re still figuring out people like Trump is because he sort of satirises himself.

Reference list entry (newspaper)

Iannucci, A. (2017, April 19). Armando Iannucci: 'You're on a highway to nowhere if you think jokes are going to stop Donald Trump'. Interview with Armando Ianucci. Interviewed by Daniel Dylan Wray for The Independent, p69.

Unpublished

For unpublished works, e.g. an interview you conducted in which the interviewee agreed to be quoted, you can cite it as a personal communication.

In-text citation

The manager conceded the point that the value of 'water cooler moments' was vastly underrated (M. Phillips, personal communication, July 26, 2001).

Nota bene: You do not include this in your reference list as there is no copy available for the reader to view.

Journal articles (electronic)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of journal -  italicised
  • Volume number -  italicised.
  • Issue number - in parentheses followed by comma.Only include issue numbers when each issue in a volume starts at page one (paginated)
  • Page numbers Followed with a full stop
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

"In our opinion, 'insight' can never be a satisfactory explanation for an animal's innovative performance." (von Bayern, Heathcote, Rutz, & Kacelnik, 2009)

Reference list entry

von Bayern, A. M. P., Heathcote, R. J. P., Rutz, C., & Kacelnik, A. (2009). The role of experience in problem solving and innovative tool use in crows. Current Biology, 19(22), 1965-1968. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.037

Journal articles (printed)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of journal - italicised
  • Volume number - italicised
  • Issue number in parentheses followed by comma. Only include issue numbers when each issue in a volume starts at page one (paginated)
  • Page numbers Follow with a full stop

In-text citation

"When Stan Lee created the Spiderman comic he probably did not imagine that one day it would inspire unaccountable government programs that would limit the mobility of immigrants within the United States." (Koulish, 2015, p.84)

Reference list entry

Koulish, R. (2015). Spiderman’s Web and the Governmentality of Electronic Immigrant Detention. Law, Culture and the Humanities, 11(1), 83-108.

Newspapers print/online

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year and date of publication (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of newspaper -  italicised
  • Volume number if applicable -  italicised
  • Issue number - in round brackets
  • Page numbers if applicable Followed with a full stop
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online.

In-text citation

Fritz (2017, July 11). describes the emergence of TV as the death of the feature film as an ascribed definition.

Reference list entry

Fritz, B. (2017, Jul 11). The end of the feature film; analysis: In the age of netflix movies, HBO TV shows and marvel big-screen series, the 120-year-old definition of a feature film is defunct. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from https://manchester.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1917726822?accountid=1225

 

Online videos (vimeo, youtube)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each - and/or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month date in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of the video - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Video file]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

"Criminology is about understanding crime and criminal nature". (Yeti Creative, 2017)

Reference list entry

Yeti Creative. (2017, January 05). The University of Manchester - Criminology. [Online Video] Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/198200931

Press release (online)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each. and or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month day in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Press release]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online

In-text citation

...(The Alex Foundation, 2007)

 

Reference list entry

The Alex Foundation. (2007). Alex the African grey parrot and subject of landmark studies of bird intelligence dies at 31 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.alexfoundation.org/press_release.html

Podcast

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each. and or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month day in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Audio/Video podcast]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

(Seftel & Sweet, 2011)

Reference list entry

Seftel, J. & Sweet, J. (Producers). (2011, June 24). Profile: Irene Pepperberg & Alex [Video podcast].
Retrieved from https://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/rss/media/nsn_v_pod_PepperbergProfile_110624.m4

Theses

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • Degree statement
  • Degree awarding body
  • Location

In-text citation

Research by Naude (1992) suggested that buying behaviour by organisations…

Reference list entry

Naude, P. (1992). Modelling organisational buying behaviour incorporating judgemental methods. (Unpublished PhD thesis). Manchester Business School, Manchester, UK.

⁠Webpage on a Website

  • Provide as specific a date as is available on the webpage. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day.
  • Italicise the title of a webpage.
  • When the author of the webpage and the publisher of the website are the same, omit the publisher name to avoid repetition (as in the World Health Organisation example).
  • When contents of a page are meant to be updated over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference (as in the Fagan example).

In-text citation

A clinical brain is used by nurses to organize their patient care (Fagan, 2019).

Reference list entry

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view

Websites (general)

When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.

In-text citation

The University of Manchester Library website is a great place to start to find information to support your studies (www.manchester.ac.uk/library).

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010)

Reference list entry

Not required.

 

Creative Commons Licence This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence.

You can use this box to make notes on this page. Please contact us if you encounter any problems with this tool or if you have any feedback. Ensure you email your notes to yourself before you close your browser.

 

Save:
Save as text file:
Email notes to yourself:
>
Notes