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Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: Vancouver

Disclaimer

The information contained within these pages is intended as a general referencing guideline.

Please check with your supervisor to ensure that you are following the specific guidelines required by your school.

Vancouver Citations within the text

This guide provides you with examples of how to correctly cite references in the Vancouver style within the text of your assignments.

The Vancouver system does allow for some variations in style, but you must remain consistent throughout your document. The Vancouver system is most commonly used in medical and clinical sciences.

Citations you include in the main body of your writing should only provide a number that refers to the reference that you are citing. These citations will then link to a fully detailed reference, which will be included in your list of references / bibliography.

The way in which you refer to a source within the text of your work should always follow this format:

  • The number of the reference appears in brackets outside of the sentence (i.e. after the full stop).
  • The number can be in superscript.
  • The number remains the same throughout the paper.
  • Use a hyphen where there are more than 3 consecutive references being referred to.

Direct citations

If the author’s name forms a natural part of your sentence, then the surname should be followed by the number indicating the order that it appears in the document (in brackets), eg.

Albanese refers to problem based learning as...(1)

or

Albanese refers to problem based learning as...(1)

Indirect citations

If you do not mention the author’s name within your text, you should place the number in brackets at the end of the sentence, eg.

There are six distinctive conditions, which need to be satisfied, in order for a whistle-blowing case to be justified. (2)

Multiple authors

Provide the numbers in brackets as they appear in the text after these sentence, eg.

Several drug trials proved that the antibody was released immediately. (2, 3, 9- 12)

Setting out quotations

Any quotations used should be relevant to the argument you are making. Short quotations (1-2 lines) can be set in quotation marks and included within the body of the text.

Vancouver Reference lists/bibliographies

Your reference list links with your in-text citations, enabling readers to easily trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which any direct quotations or examples have been taken.

N.B. A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is not usually required. You should however always check this first, with the person who will be assessing your work.

Your reference list (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged numerically in the order that the citations appear in the text.

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The Vancouver system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type; these are detailed below.

Example Reference list

  1. Albanese MA. Problem-based learning. Edinburgh: ASME; 2007.
  2. Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
  3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
  4. Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10149/improving-palliative-care-for-cancer

Printed books

Required elements

  • Number: as it appears in the text.
  • Author/Editor: Surname with a capital letter, followed by a comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with no full stops.
  • Title: Full title with only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by “ed.” eg. 4th ed.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon.
  • Year: Year of publication.

Reference list entry

1. Albanese MA. Problem-based learning. Edinburgh: ASME; 2007.

N.B. For a book with multiple authors provide details of all the first 6 authors in the Reference list, followed by et al.

Edited books

Required elements

  • Author(s),
  • Initial(s). editors.
  • (Year of publication)
  • Title of book. Edition (if not 1st edition).
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Reference list entry

2. Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

Chapter from an edited book

Required elements

  • Chapter author(s) surname(s),
  • Initial(s).
  • 'Title of chapter'.
  • In:
  • Name of editors,
  • Editors.
  • Title of book.
  • Place of publication: publisher;
  • Year.
  • Page numbers preceded by p.

Reference list entry

3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

E-books

Required elements

  • Author(s),
  • (editors if required).
  • Title of book.
  • [Internet]
  • Edition (if not 1st edition).
  • Place of publication;
  • Year.
  • [cited date].
  • [Available from: URL].

Reference list entry

4. Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029.html/

Journal articles (printed)

Required elements

  • Author(s) surname.
  • Initials.
  • Title of article
  • Abbreviated title of journal.
  • Year, first 3 letters of month, date;
  • Volume (issue):
  • Page numbers (without p).

Reference list entry

5. Endres M, Engelhardt B, Koistinaho J, Lindvall O, Meairs S, Mohr JP, et al. Improving outcome after stroke: Overcoming the translational roadblock. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008, Feb, 22;25(3):268-78.

Journal articles (electronic)

Required elements

  • Author(s) surname
  • Initial
  • Title of article
  • Abbreviated title of journal
  • Year
  • [cited year month date];
  • Volume number (Issue number):
  • Page numbers (without p).
  • Available from: URL or DOI

Reference list entry

1. Fanta CH. Asthma. N Engl J Med. [Internet] 2009 [cited 9 Jan 2013]; 360(10):1002-14. Available from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056.NEJMra0804579

2. Fanta CH. Asthma. N Engl J Med. [Internet] 2009 [cited 9 Jan 2013]; 360(10):1002-14. Available from: doi: 10.1056/NEJMra0804579

Things to note

  • The recognised abbreviation of the journal title can be found here.
  • In the title of the article, only the first letter and proper nouns should be capitalised.
  • If the journal you are citing has continuous pagination it is unnecessary to cite the month and date of publication.
  • Where an organisation is the author simply replace the author with the name of the organisation.

Newspaper articles

Required information

  • Author (If no author provided use the title of the newspaper in italics).
  • Title of article.
  • Title of newspaper.
  • Year month date;
  • Page reference

Reference list entry

6. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Websites

Required elements

  • Author / Organisation
  • Title site
  • [Internet].
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher;
  • [updated year month date; cited year month date].
  • Available from: URL.

It can often be difficult to identify the author of a web-page. If this is the case use the organisation (e.g. BBC) in place of the author. If a website has no discernible author or organisation you may want to strongly consider whether it is suitable for inclusion in a piece of academic writing! Again it is probably best to check with the person who will be assessing your work, if you find yourself in this situation.

Reference list entry

Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/.

Blogs

Use the name provided by the author of the blog post (even if this is informal or an alias). Put the blog title in capitals, eg.

Mantone J. Head trauma haunts many, researchers say. 2008 Jan 29 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG [Internet]. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2008 -. [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://blogs.wsj.com/health/2008/01/29/head-trauma-haunts-many-researchers-say/.

Government reports (printed)

Required elements

  • Organisation name.
  • Title,
  • Paper number.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher;
  • Year.

Reference list entry

Department of Health. Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier, CM6374. London: Stationery Office; 2001.

Government reports (online)

Required elements

  • Organisation name.
  • Title,
  • Paper number.
  • [Internet].
  • Year
  • [cited date]
  • Available from: URL

Reference list entry

Department of Health. Equity and excellence: liberating the NHS, CM7881. [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2013 Jan 9] .Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_117353

Theses

Required elements

  • Author's name and initials.
  • Title.
  • Level (PhD etc).
  • Educational establishment.
  • Year.

Reference list entry

Nixon, H. Families, Parenting and Asthma. PhD Thesis. The University Of Manchester; 2011.

Conference proceedings

Required elements

  • Author's name(s) and initials.
  • Title of paper,
  • Full title of conference (capitalise all words);
  • Year month date;
  • Location
  • If published, add details of place and publisher

Reference list entry

• Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

 

DVD/videos

Required elements

  • Title.
  • Medium.
  • Director.
  • Distribution company
  • Year

Reference list entry

The Shining.DVD.Stanley Kubrick. Warner Bros.1980.

Articles not in English

Required elements - As per journal articles in English:

  • Author(s) surname.
  • Initials.
  • Title of article
  • Abbreviated title of journal.
  • Year, first 3 letters of month, date;
  • Volume (issue):
  • Page numbers (without p).

Reference list entry

Forneau E, Bovet D. Recherches sur l'action sympathicolytique d'un nouveau dérivé du dioxane. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1933;46:178-191. French.

The National Library of Medicine adds an English translation of the title enclosed in square brackets right after the title. The language is specified in full after the paginiation (page location), followed by a 'full stop'.

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