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Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: Harvard

Disclaimer

The information contained within these pages is intended as a general referencing guideline.

Please check with your supervisor to ensure that you are following the specific guidelines required by your school.

Harvard Manchester Style

The Library has created the ‘Harvard Manchester’ style as an alternative to the default EndNote ‘Harvard’ style. The Harvard Manchester style displays author names in the bibliography in normal case rather than uppercase as used in the ‘Harvard’ style.

The Harvard referencing system is a convention specifying the order and content of references, not the way the references are formatted.  The most important factor with all referencing styles is to be consistent. You should contact your tutor or supervisor for details of any particular formatting specifications which may apply in your School.

If you do not have the Harvard Manchester style, you can download it below and follow these instructions to add it to your copy of EndNote.

Common elements for inclusion

Harvard Citations within the text

This guide provides you with examples of how to correctly cite references within the text of your assignments.

The Harvard system does allow for some variations in style (eg. in your list of references, the title of a book can be italicized or underlined), but you must remain consistent throughout your document. APA referencing is very similar to Harvard and is sometimes considered a Harvard variation.

You should always check with your tutor or supervisor that this method of citation is accepted within your School.

Author of a chapter within an edited text

If the author’s work appears as a chapter within part of a larger work that is edited by somebody else (quite common with academic textbooks), use the author of the chapter for the citation within your text, eg.

Lane (1996) argues that there are distinctive national patterns in the organisation of firms and inter-firm relations.

You will however, need to provide the full bibliographic details in your list of references.

Authors of different titles

Cite both names, and follow the name with the year of publication in parentheses, or cite both names at the end of the sentence, with author’s name, followed by date of publication, and separated by a semi-colon in parentheses, eg.

Hollensen (2004) and Palmer (2008) are in agreement about the importance of service led marketing.

Service led marketing should form an important part of an organisation’s overall marketing strategy (Hollensen, 2004; Palmer, 2008).

Citing sources quoted in another source

If you have read about a particular author’s work, but have been unable to consult the actual work (the primary source) directly, then you need to acknowledge this. This is known as secondary referencing. Use the phrase “cited in” and give the page number on which the source cites this information, eg.

Kristensen (1996, p. 73) citing Sable’s views on Japanese subcontractors (1993), supports the view that…

It can be argued that the organizing abilities of the manufacturing concern in Japan have succeeded in creating a hierarchy of careers among their subcontractors (Sabel 1993, cited in Kristensen, 1996, p. 73).

Corporate or Government authors

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author, then use the organisation’s name for the citation.

It has been suggested that the proposed grocery market reforms might have a detrimental effect on competition within the industry (British Retail Consortium, 2008).

N.B. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for associations, companies and institutions within your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citation with the abbreviation in parentheses.

Citation 1: (Manchester Business School [MBS], 2008).
Citation 2: (MBS, 2008).

Direct citations

If the author’s name forms a natural part of your sentence, then the surname should be followed by the year of publication (within parentheses), eg.

Boatright (2006) argues that there are six questions that need consideration, before making a decision on whether to blow the whistle in a case.

Figures/Images

Every time you use a figure or a table in your writing, it should be referred to three times:

  1. In a caption.
    Just below the image. This includes a number, a title, and its source.
  2. In your writing.
    You should include an in-text citation and a sentence or two about the image explaining what it illustrates and why it is there.
  3. As a reference in your bibliography.
    1. If you have only used a few images or tables, you may include the references in the same bibliography (reference list)as your books, journal articles, etc.
    2. If you are writing a large piece of work, such as your dissertation or thesis, and have used a lot of illustrative material, you should reference them in a separate List of Figures and/or List of Tables.

 If you are unsure what to do, please speak to your tutor or supervisor.

Example:

Figure 1 is an artist’s impression of what was envisaged for the Clifford Whitworth Library (University of Salford, 1970).

Clifford Whitworth building image

University of Salford. (1970). Artist's impression of Clifford Whitworth Library. [Drawing] Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/10922/

Example provided courtesy of University of Salford

Indirect citations

If you do not mention the author’s name within your text, then you should place the author’s name and year of publication, in parentheses, at the end of the sentence, eg.

There are six distinctive conditions, which need to be satisfied, in order for a whistle-blowing case to be justified (Boatright, 2006).

Making changes to quotations

To omit part of a quotation use an ellipsis, eg.

"Consider the three major social networks… none of these was profitable at the time of writing" (Chaffey, 2011, p. 79)

You can insert your own words into the quotation by putting them in square brackets: [], eg.

Jones (2007, p. 16) notes that "in these areas the larger [tobacco] companies often act the most irresponsibly".

If the original quotation contains errors (eg. a spelling mistake) do not correct it. Instead point out the errors by writing [sic], eg.

Williams (2008, p. 86) noted that "Johnson maid [sic] a mistake".

More than three authors

When there are more than three authors only provide the first author’s name, followed by the Latin term ‘et al.’ (and all) in italics, and the year of publication in parentheses, eg.

Kotler et al. (2005) argue that business markets are very similar to consumer markets.

There are a number of similarities between the business and consumer market sectors (Kotler et al., 2005).

Multiple works by the same author in different years

If more than one publication by a particular author illustrates your point, and these are published in different years, then you should cite the references in chronological order, eg.

Handy (1999, 2001) argues that

Organizational behaviour cannot easily be predicted (Handy 1999, 2001).

Multiple works by the same author in the same year

When the same author has published more than one cited document within the same year, use lower case letters to differentiate each document, eg.

Mintzberg (1973a) took a new approach to the concept of leadership, then speculated further on the eight principles which make up an effective leader (Mintzberg, 1973b).

If you wish to refer to the works on a single occasion, or if the same point is made by both publications, then refer to both within parentheses, eg.

Mintzberg (1973a, 1973b) summarised eight current schools of thought on the different roles of the manager.

No author

If you cannot identify the author of a document (quite common with online sources) then you should provide the title of the document (in italics), and the date of publication, eg.

(Marketing strategy, 2001)

No date

The phrase “no date” should be used if you cannot identify a date of publication.

Cosgrove (no date) states that total sales measures are often used to assess overall trends within the retail sector

Total sales measure is used to assess market level trends in retail sales (Cosgrove, no date).

Non-English & Translated Texts

If you are writing a piece of research in the English language but are referring to sources which are written in other languages:

Give the source title exactly as it appears in the original language, and give an English translation of it in square brackets with a language descriptor at the end, e.g.

Thurfjell, W. 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? [Where has our doctor gone?] Läkartidningen 72, p. 789.

Sources which you have read in the English translation are treated differently, e.g.

Alberti, L. 1974. Music through the ages. Translated from the Italian, by R. Pierce. London: Cassell. (Originally published in 1968).

Page numbers

If you are quoting directly or using ideas from a specific page or pages of a work, you must also include the page number(s) within your citation. Insert the abbreviation p. or pp. (for multiple pages) before the page number(s), eg.

Chaffey (2011, p. 30) provides a useful definition of E-government

There are four major causes of inequality within the globalized system (Scholte, 2005, pp. 316 – 344).

Setting out quotations

Any quotations used should be relevant to the argument you are making. Short quotations (1-2 lines) can be set in quotation marks and included within the body of the text, eg.

Chaffey (2011, p. 79) concludes that the high burn-rate facing Boo.com was due to an "imbalance between promotion and site development costs and revenues".

Longer quotations need to entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text. You do not need to use quotation marks, eg.

Chaffey describes how it can be difficult to assess the success of e-businesses:

Internet pureplay companies are often perceived as dynamic and successful owing to the rapid increase in visitors to sites, or sales, or due to initial valuations on stock markets. In reality, it is difficult to assess the success of these companies since despite positive indications in terms of sales or audience, the companies have often not been profitable. Consider the three major social networks: Bebo, Facebook or MySpace – none of these was profitable at the time of writing. (Chaffey, 2011, p. 79)

Two or three authors

All authors (with publication date) should be noted within your text, eg.

Hirst and Thompson (1999) identify enormous variations between countries in terms of the importance of foreign holdings.

Gobi’s investment revenues doubled in 2007 (Lerner, Hardymon and Leamon, 2009).

Harvard Reference lists/bibliographies

Your list of references links with your in-text citations and enables readers to easily trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which any direct quotations, or examples have been taken.

N.B. A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is not usually required. You should however always check this with your tutor first.

Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and then, where necessary, by year of publication.

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The Harvard system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type; these are detailed below.

Blogs

Use the name provided by the author of the blog post (even if this is informal or an alias). Put the title of the post in single quotation marks and the blog title in italics, eg.

markgreenwood (2011). ‘Risk Free Rate for UK and US’, Business Research Plus, 25 August. Available at: http://bizlib247.wordpress.com/ (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

Books

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by “edn.” e.g. 4th edn.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

According to Boatright (2006, p. 27) whistle-blowing is more common than the general population might realise…
Hirst and Thompson (1999) identify enormous variations between countries in terms of the importance of foreign holdings.
There are a number of similarities between the business and consumer market sectors (Kotler et al., 2005).

Reference list entry

Boatright, J. (2006). Ethics and the conduct of business. 5th edn. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Lerner, J., Hardymon, F. and Leamon, A. (2009). Venture capital and private equity: A casebook. 4th edn. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

N.B. For a book with multiple authors provide details of all authors in the Reference list entry

British Standard

Required elements

  • Name of publishing organisation: 
  • Year: in brackets
  • Title: Number and title of standard in italics followed by a full stop.
  • Place of publication followed by a full stop.
  • Publisher followed by a full stop.

In-text citation

at that point the BSO (2014)....

Reference list entry

British Standards Institution. (2014). BS ISO 14886:2014 Ships and marine technology. Large yachts. Structural fire protection for FRP yachts. London. British Standards Institution.

Chapter from an edited book

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of chapter, in
  • Book editor(s) initials and surname(s) followed by (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of book: in italics
  • Place of publication: followed by a colon
  • Publisher: followed by a comma
  • Page numbers: followed by a full stop

In-text citation

Lane (1996) argues that there are distinctive national patterns in the organisation of firms and inter-firm relations.

Reference list entry

Lane, C. (1996). The social constitution of supplier relations in Britain and Germany: an institutionalist analysis, in Whitley, R. and Kristensen P.H. (eds.) The changing European firm. London: Routledge, pp. 271-304.

Company and financial databases

Bloomberg. (2012). Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: 30 November 2012).

CRSP/Compustat Merged. (2012). CRSP/Compustat Merged. Center for Research in Security Prices. [Online]. Available at: WRDS http://wrds-web.wharton.upenn.edu/wrds/ (Accessed: 14November 2012).

Datastream. (2012). Thomson Reuters Datastream. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012).

Fame. (2012). Fame. Bureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: http://fame2.bvdep.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012).

Orbis. (2012). Orbis. Bureau van Dijk. [Online]. Available at: https://orbis2.bvdep.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012).

SDC Platinum. (2012). SDC Platinum. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: November 2012).

Thomson One Banker. (2012). Thomson One Banker. Thomson Reuters. [Online]. Available at: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ (Accessed: 19 November 2012).

Company annual reports (online)

Required elements

  • Company name
  • (Year of publication)
  • Annual report
  • [Online].
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed:date)

In-text citation

GM’s profits declined even further during the financial year ending in 2004 (General Motors, 2005).

Reference list entry

General Motors (2005). 2004 Annual report [Online]. Available at: http://www.companythumbs.co.uk/ReportByCompanyG100.asp?shareCode=GM&arYear=2004 (Accessed: 26 October 2011)

Company annual reports (printed)

Required elements

  • Company name
  • (Year of publication)
  • Annual report
  • Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text citation

GM’s profits declined even further during the financial year ending in 2004 (General Motors, 2005).

Reference list entry

General Motors (2005) 2004 Annual report Detroit: General Motors.

Conference proceedings (online)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by a comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of article: 
  • Full title of conference. (in italics) followed by comma.
  • Location & date of conference: followed by full stop.
  • Publisher: followed by full stop.
  • Available at: URL : followed by full stop.
  • (Accessed date) : followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Concrete empirical accounts of the concept of embeddedness can also be found in a paper presented at the same conference (Sandberg, 2003).

Reference list entry

Sandberg, E.A. (2003). The face of embeddedness, Proceedings of the 19th IMP conference, University of Lugano, Switzerland. 4th – 6th September 2003. IMP Group. Available at: http://www.impgroup.org/papers.php (Accessed: 26 October 2011).

Conference proceedings (print)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by a comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of article: 
  • Full title of conference. (in italics) followed by comma.
  • Location & date of conference: followed by full stop.
  • Publisher: followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Concrete empirical accounts of the concept of embeddedness can also be found in a paper presented at the same conference (Sandberg, 2003).

Reference list entry

Sandberg, E.A. (2003). The face of embeddedness, Proceedings of the 19th IMP conference, University of Lugano, Switzerland. 4th – 6th September 2003. Lugano: IMP Group, pp. 237-253.

Discography

In order to reference a song or album correctly then use the guidelines below

  • Author: Name of the artist with capital letter, followed by comma. (If no author provided use the title of the organization).
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Full title of Album - italics.
  • Type of medium:  should be indicated in square brackets.
  • Producer: followed by comma.
  • Name of distributor: followed by full stop.

Brassens, Georges, Les Trompettes de la renommée (1973, Polydor)

For a single song  - Artist name, ‘Song title’, Album title (producer/distributor, date)

Brassens, Georges, ‘Fernande’, Les Trompettes de la renommée (1973, Polydor)

DVD / Videos

In order to reference DVDs and videos correctly then use the guidelines below

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. (If no author provided use the title of the organization).
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Full title of DVD - italics.
  • Type of medium:  should be indicated in square brackets.
  • Place of Publication: followed by comma.
  • Name of publisher: followed by full stop.

Jackson, P. (2014). The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug [PAL, subtitled]. USA, Warner Home video.

E-books

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Name of e-book provider: (e.g. Dawsonera, Knovel)
  • [Online]. in parenthesis followed by full stop
  • Available at: URL: followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Baker and Hart (2008, pp. 109 -244) provided a new framework for marketing activities.

Reference list entry

Baker, M. and Hart, S. (2008). The Marketing Book. 6th edn. Elsevier Ltd. [Online]. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.

Edited books

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title: Full title in italics. Edition (if not 1st edition).. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Changes in EU legislation provided extra logistical challenges for these firms (Whitley and Kristenesen, 1996)

Reference list entry

Whitley, R. and Kristensen, P.H. (eds.) (1996). The changing European firm: limits to convergence. London: Routledge.

Government publication

Required elements

  • Author: Name of government department followed by comma.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • Series: Series (in brackets) - if applicable

In-text citation

A recent study (Department of Health, 2009, p.24.) stated that "62,000 patients waited for more than 8 weeks before receiving an outpatient appointment".

Reference list entry

Department of Health (2009) NHS inpatient and outpatient waiting times. London: The Stationery Office.. London: Routledge.

Department of Health (2009) NHS inpatient and outpatient waiting times. Available at: http://www.govtoday.co.uk/health/44-public-health/552-nhs-inpatient-and-outpatient-waiting-times-figures-31st-january-2009 (Accessed: 4 December 2013).. London: Routledge.

Interviews

Required elements

  • Interviewee: followed by full stop
  • Year of broadcast : in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • In. Programme title: in italics
  • Channel: followed by full stop
  • Date: followed by full stop
  • Time: followed by full stop

In-text citation

Matt Smith (2013) commented that .

Reference list entry

Matt Smith. (2013). In. Interview with Matt Smith. BBC Two HD. 7th November. 20:32

NOTE: Your do not need to reference your own primary research. You should cite your interviewee in the text as a personal communication, with a referral, if appropriate, to the full interview transcript in an appendix.

Journal articles (electronic)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop
  • Title of article: followed by comma
  • Full title of journal: in italics followed by comma
  • Volume number: (Issue/Part number) followed by comma
  • Page numbers: followed by full stop

For electronic versions you will need to provide sufficient information so others can find the same article. Most commonly this will have been through one of the library’s bibliographic databases. You can however also access journal articles freely online or via a repository such as e-scholar. You only need to provide these extra details if you are unsure whether people will easily be able to locate the source you have cited.

Bibliographic databases

Add the following information:

  • Name of database and provider: in italics
  • [Online]: followed by full stop
  • Available at: URL: 
  • (Accessed:date): 

Snowden, D.J. and Boone, M.E. (2007). ‘A leader’s framework for decision making’, Harvard Business Review, 85(11), pp. 68-76, Business Source Premier via EBSCO Host [Online]. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

Online

Provide the full URL from where you accessed the article, eg.

Hamblin, Y. (2005). ‘Library and information management employability skills: LIMES’, Sconul Focus, 35 (Summer / Autumn 2005), pp. 35-47, [Online]. Available at: http://www.sconul.ac.uk/publications/newsletter/35/4.rtf (Accessed: 6 May 2008).

Repository

Provide the name of the repository in italics, eg.

Schlegelmilch, B. and Sinkovics, R. (1998). ‘Marketing in the information age - Can we plan for an unpredictable future?’, International Marketing Review, 15(3), pp. 162-170, Manchester eScholar Services [Online]. Available at: https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/ (Accessed: 25 October 2011)

Journal articles (printed)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop
  • Title of article: followed by comma
  • Full title of journal: in italics followed by comma
  • Volume number: (Issue/Part number) followed by comma
  • Page numbers: followed by full stop

In-text citation

The Cynefin framework allows leaders to see things from new viewpoints (Snowden and Boone, 2007, pp. 68-69).

Reference list entry

Snowden, D.J. and Boone, M.E. (2007). ‘A leader’s framework for decision making’, Harvard Business Review, 85(11), pp. 68-76.

Kindle e-book

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by a comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop
  • Type of e-book:. Kindle, Nook etc.
  • Accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the e-book)
  • The DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or where you download the book from if there was no DOI.

In-text citation

at that point Mandela (2013) commented that 

Reference list entry

Mandela, N. (2013). Long Walk to Freedom: Abacus 40th Anniversary edition, Kindle version, accessed 14 April 2013 from Amazon.com.

NOTE:  ebooks often lack page numbers (though PDF versions may have them). If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead to indicate the location of a quoted section.

Microfiche / Microform

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by a comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • Medium e.g. microfiche/microform followed by a comma.
  • Publisher followed by a comma.
  • Place of publication followed by a full stop.

In-text citation

at that point the General Microfilm Company (1971) discussed the legacy of the French revolution.

Reference list entry

General Microfilm Company. (1971). French Revolutionary Pamphlets, Microfiche, Watertown, Mass.

Multiple works by a single author in the same year

If there are several works by one author (published in the same year) included in your Reference list entry, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Paxson, D. (2001a). ‘Real football options in Manchester’, in Howell, S. (ed.) Real options: evaluating corporate investment opportunities in a dynamic world. London: Pearson Education Limited, pp. 95-112.

Paxson, D. (2001b). Real options in managing a football club, in Howell, S. (ed.) Real options: an introduction for executives. London: Pearson Education, pp. 67-71.

Newspaper articles

Required information

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. (If no author provided use the title of the newspaper in italics).
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of article: followed by comma.
  • Title of newspaper:  followed by comma.
  • Date: followed by comma.
  • Page reference: followed by full stop.

In-text citation

European negotiators began to take a hard line stance with Greek debt holders in October 2011 (Spiegel, 2011, p. 1).

Russian gold and silver miner Polymetal joined the FTSE 100 index in October 2011 (Financial Times, 2011, p. 1)

Reference list entry

Spiegel, P. (2011). Hard line taken with Greek debt holders, Financial Times, 25 October, p. 1.

Financial Times (2011). Russia’s Polymetal set for FTSE 100 listing, 25 October, p. 1.

Electronic versions

For an online version of a newspaper article, you should provide the details of how you accessed the article. If you have accessed the article through a database then provide these details in place of the URL, eg.

Wallace, S. (2008) ‘Barry to reject record pay deal and join Benitez’, The Independent, 6 May [Online]. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/premier-league/barry-to-reject-record-pay-deal-and-join-benitez-821643.html (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

Wallace, S. (2008) ‘Barry to reject record pay deal and join Benitez’, The Independent, 6 May, Dow Jones Factiva [Online]. Available at: https://global.factiva.com (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

Patent

Required elements

  • Name of the patent holder (usually a company)
  • Year the patent came into force, in brackets
  • Title of the patent, in italics
  • Country granting the patent
  • Patent number

Example

National Starch and Chemical Corp. (1989). Degradation of granular starch. US Patent: us 4838944.

Podcast

Required elements

  • Broadcaster:  followed by full stop
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Name of podcast: followed by comma
  • Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalised. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Available from :URL
  • Accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the podcast).

In-text citation

at that point on the Craig Charles Funk and Soul Show (2014) he was playing 

Reference list entry

6 Music. (2014). The Craig Charles Funk and Soul Show. (podcast) Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0072ky7 (Accessed 07.04.2014)

Presentations

Required elements

  • Author or tutor
  • (Year of publication)
  • ‘Title of presentation’
  • [presentation] or [powerpoint presentation]
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Available at: URL or VLE
  • (Accessed: date) or I suppose, if not online (Presented: date)

In-text citation

The excellent presentation (Booth, 2011) says…

Reference list entry

Booth, L (2011) Histrory of radiography [PowerPoint presentation]. MISR4004: Patient care skills: an introduction to human sciences. Available at: https://mylearning.cumbria.ac.uk (Accessed 7 August 2012)

Reports/data within company and financial databases

Bloomberg. (2012). “Company information for Rolls Royce PLC”, Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Bloomberg Subscription Service (Accessed: 19 November 2012).

Mintel. (2009). Books – UK – December 2009, Market Research Report. [Online]. Available at: http://reports.mintel.com/sinatra/reports/display/id=395633 (Accessed: 05 January 2010).

Meltz, M. A., Lewis, D. & Lovell, N. (2009). [J.P. Morgan report on] The McGraw-Hill Companies – 07 Dec 2009. Thomson Research Investment Research Collection Rpt. 15613728 [Online]. Available at: Thomson Research – http://research.thomsonib.com/ (Accessed: 05 January 2010).

Software

Required elements

  • Author's name and initials.
  • (Year of release) followed by full stop.
  • Title (version).
  • [Computer programme].
  • Available at URL (Accessed date)
  • Educational establishment.

In-text citation

(Banjo,2011) created this software to...

Reference list entry

Banjo (2011) Making Things (Version 3) [Computer program]. Available at www.banjo.com/downloads/makthinv3.asp (Accessed 3 September 2012).

Theses

Required elements

  • Author's name and initials.
  • (Year of submission) followed by full stop.
  • Title.
  • Level (PhD etc).
  • Educational establishment.

In-text citation

Research by Naude (1992) suggested that buying behaviour by organisations…

Reference list entry

Naude, P. (1992). Modelling organisational buying behaviour incorporating judgemental methods. PhD. Manchester Business School.

TV programme

Required elements

  • Title of programme/broadcast (italics). followed by full stop.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Name of broadcaster: followed by comma.
  • Day and month of broadcast: followed by full stop.

In-text citation

The differences between the Doctor and Master is only matched by their similarities (Doctor Who, 2008).

Reference list entry

Doctor Who. (2008). BBC One, Saturday 18th November

Twitter / Facebook posts

These are awkward as these sites require registration. You may want to include a copy of any discourse you use as an appendix to your work. Give the date of the post next to the name of the site, eg.

Peston, R (2011). ‘Peston’, Twitter, 25 October. Available at: http://twitter.com/#!/Peston (Accessed: 26 October 2011)

Websites

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. (If no author provided use the title of the organization).
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of webpage / internet site (if not already provided).
  • Available at: URL: followed by comma
  • Accessed: date:  in brackets followed by full stop.

It can often be difficult to identify the author of a web-page. If this is the case use the organisation (e.g. BBC) in place of the author. If a website has no discernible author or organisation you may want to strongly consider whether it is suitable for inclusion in a piece of academic writing! Again it is probably best to check with the person who will be assessing your work, if you find yourself in this situation.

In-text citation

King (2011) drew parallels between the debut seasons of Cam Newton and Peyton Manning

In December 2007 Mervyn King strongly denied criticising the treasury for the way it had handled the Northern Rock Crisis (BBC, 2011).

Reference list entry

King, P. (2011). Monday Morning QB: October 24 2011. Available at: http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2011/writers/peter_king/10/24/Week7/index.html?sct=nfl_wr_a1, (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

BBC News. (2007). King denies criticising Treasury. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7149384.stm, (Accessed: 25 October 2011).

Wikipedia

Place the article title in single quotation marks. You will find information on when the page was last updated at the foot of the page, eg.
 

‘Marketing mix’ (2011).Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_mix (Accessed: 25 October 2011)

YouTube

Required elements

  • Title of the item (date uploaded)
  • YouTube video,
  • added by Name of uploader.
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL (Accessed date).

In-text citation

Internet is not only a European issue (Google Privacy: A Look at Cookies, 2008).

Reference list entry

Google Privacy: A Look at Cookies (2008) YouTube video, added by google privacy [Online]. Available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfZLztx8cKI (Accessed 12 June 2008).

Creative Commons Licence This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence.

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