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Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: American Psychological Association APA

Disclaimer

The information contained within these pages is intended as a general referencing guideline.

Please check with your supervisor to ensure that you are following the specific guidelines required by your school.

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style

The American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style is used predominantly in Social Science subject areas.

Within the citation it displays much like Harvard, utilising the  'Author-Date' standard format.

The information detailed within this webpage is based on the Books:

Pears, R., & Shields, Graham J., author. (2016). Cite them right : The essential referencing guide (Tenth revised and expanded ed., Palgrave study skills).
Library Search link: Cite them right : the essential referencing guide

 

American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style. (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Library Search link: Concise rules of APA style.

 

Standard rules for APA

There are several ways in which you may want to utilise other people’s ideas in order to add substance to your work. The most common ways to accomplish this are to quote, paraphrase or summarise.

Authors

When citing authors:

For corporate or group authors, display the full title of the group author and use an abbreviated version thereafter.

Within your reference list, provide all authors up to seven. The seventh name should be preceded by an ampersand (&).

With more than seven, display the first six followed by ellipses (...).

  1. For works with one to two authors, always include all the names in every citation made within the text
  2. For works with three to five authors, include all the names in the first citation within the text and simply use the first author name with et al (not italicised) for every subsequent entry.
  3. For works with six or more authors, simply include the first author with et al in all citations.

Publication year

The year in parenthesis followed by a full stop.

Example: (2017).

Title of sources

Source titles are italicised but issues and/or page numbers are not.
 
Example:

Terrill, R. E. (1993). Put on a happy face: Batman as schizophrenic savior. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79(3), 319-335.

Edition of work

The abbreviation for edition is ed. enclosed in brackets with a full stop. (8th ed.).

Example:

Pears, R., & Shields, Graham J. (2010). Cite them right : The essential referencing guide (8th ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Place of publication

When detailing the place of publication, you should list the city and state (USA). The city should be spelled out and the two letter abbreviation of the state.

Examples:

Burger, J. (1994). Before and after an oil spill : The Arthur Kill. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Reininghaus, F., & Langer, Liesel. (1980). Schubert und das Wirtshaus : Musik unter Metternich (2. Aufl. ed., Bücherei Oberbaum ; 1012). Berlin, Germany: Oberbaumverlag.

Internet resources

Internet resources should be indicated by providing either a Digital Object Identifier (doi) or an URL. This should be in the form of doi: or Retrieved from http...

Examples:

Boyd, H., & Murnen, S. K. (2017). Thin and sexy vs. muscular and dominant: Prevalence of gendered body ideals in popular dolls and action figures. Body Image, 21, 90-96. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.03.003

Curry, L., (2016). Beating the Workplace Bully: A Tactical Guide to Taking Charge [Kindle version] Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk

Secondary sources

When a primary source is not available, you need to cite the primary source within the text and the secondary source within round brackets.

Example:

The wanton destruction of a hidden universe, Franks (as cited in Anderton, 2002, p.27) presumes the decay of a pathetic fallacy...

Reference list

All lines after the first line of a reference are indented... often described as a hanging indentation.

Example:

Clayton, N. S., & Emery, N. J. (2009). What do jays know about other minds and other times? In A. Berthoz & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of Umwelt: How Living Beings Perceive the World (pp. 109-123). Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Abbreviations

Here is a list of acceptable abbreviations you can use in APA.

Element

Abbreviation

edition ed.
Revised edition Rev. ed.
second edition 2nd ed.
Editors (Editors) Ed. (Eds.)
Translator(s) Trans.
no date n.d.
page(s) p. (pp.)
Volume(s) Vol. (Vols)
Number No.
Part Pt.
Technical Report Tech. Rep.
Supplement Suppl.

APA Citations and Reference

Your list of references links with your in-text citations and enables the reader to trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which any direct quotations or examples have been taken.

Nota Bene: A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted within the body of the text), is not usually required. However, you should always check this with your tutor first.

Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and then, where necessary, by year of publication.

Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The APA system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type; these are detailed below.

Blog and video blog posts

Required elements

  • Author (surname and initials)
  • Year and post date: in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title
  • [Web log message] Or [Blog post] Or [Video file]
  • Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

...where he elucidates the change of environment (Binfield, 2008)....

Reference list entry

Binfield, P. (2008, September 9). At PLoS ONE we're batty about bats [Web log message].  Retrieved from http://www.plos.org/cms/trackback/398

Books

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed electronically

In-text citation

The author places the origins of the cube design in the context of the social history of tea drinking (Anderson & Atterbury, 2004).

Reference list entry:

Book

Anderson, A., & Atterbury, P. (1999). The cube teapot: the story of the patent teapot. Ilminster, England: Richard Dennis.

Book - Electronic version

Pepperberg, I. M. (2009). Alex & me: How a scientist and a parrot discovered a hidden world of animal intelligence — and formed a deep bond in the process  Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Alex-scientist-discovered-intelligence-ebook/dp/B00APOWOXC/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1363823581&sr=1-2&keywords=alex+%26+me

Book (electronic only)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

...discovered a hidden world (Pepperberg, 2009)...

Reference list entry

Pepperberg, I. M. (2009). Alex & me: How a scientist and a parrot discovered a hidden world of animal intelligence — and formed a deep bond in the process  Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Alex-scientist-discovered-intelligence-ebook/dp/B00APOWOXC/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1363823581&sr=1-2&keywords=alex+%26+me

Chapter from an edited book

Required elements

  • Author of the chapter: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the chapter
  • In
  • Name of the editor of the book (Ed.)
  • Title of the book - Italicised
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Page numbers of the chapter in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

Crop rotation in the fourteenth century was considerably more widespread (Clayton & Emery, 2009)...

Reference list entry

Clayton, N. S., & Emery, N. J. (2009). What do jays know about other minds and other times? In A. Berthoz & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of Umwelt: How Living Beings Perceive the World (2nd ed., pp. 109-123). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Conference proceedings (print/online)

Required elements

  • Author/Editor: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year and date: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title of conference - Italicised Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title - Italicised preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Location, date of conference - Italicised
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if online

In-text citation

An adaptation of this affect was presented at the same conference (Hagino, Hiryu, Fujioka, Riquimaroux, & Watanabe, 2007)

Reference list entry

Paper:

Hagino, T., Hiryu, S., Fujioka, S., Riquimaroux, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2007, APR 17-20). Adaptive SONAR sounds by echolocating bats. Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Underwater Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

Electronic:

Hagino, T., Hiryu, S., Fujioka, S., Riquimaroux, H., & Watanabe, Y. (2007, APR 17-20). Adaptive SONAR sounds by echolocating bats. Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Underwater Technology, Tokyo, Japan. doi: 10.1109/UT.2007.370829

Edited books

Required elements

  • Editor: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • (Ed.). or (Eds.).
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Edition: Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the relevant number followed by (ed.). e.g. (4th ed.).
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.

In-text citation

...thus resulting in a change in psychology (Vonk & Shackelford, 2012)

Reference list entry

Vonk, J., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2012). The Oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Government publications

Required elements

  • Name of government department. Followed by a full stop.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - Italicised. Followed by a full stop. (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title - Italicised. Preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Report series and number in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Place of publication: Give town or city, and country if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
  • Publisher: Publisher name followed by full stop.
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online

In-text citation

... changing environment. (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 2009)

Reference list entry

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009). Guidelines for conducting bird and bat studies at commercial wind energy projects. Albany, NY. Retrieved from http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/wildlife_pdf/windguidelines.pdf.

Interviews

Published

With published interviews, you should cite and reference them in the format you used them. If you read an article or watched a documentary then you should present it in that format.

In-text citation (newspaper)

Iannucci (2017) thinks that we’re still figuring out people like Trump is because he sort of satirises himself.

Reference list entry (newspaper)

Iannucci, A. (2017, April 19). Armando Iannucci: 'You're on a highway to nowhere if you think jokes are going to stop Donald Trump'. Interview with Armando Ianucci. Interviewed by Daniel Dylan Wray for The Independent, p69.

Unpublished

For unpublished works, e.g. an interview you conducted in which the interviewee agreed to be quoted, you can cite it as a personal communication.

In-text citation

The manager conceded the point that the value of 'water cooler moments' was vastly underrated (M. Phillips, personal communication, July 26, 2001).

Nota bene: You do not include this in your reference list as there is no copy available for the reader to view.

Journal articles (electronic)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of journal -  italicised
  • Volume number -  italicised.
  • Issue number - in parentheses followed by comma.Only include issue numbers when each issue in a volume starts at page one (paginated)
  • Page numbers Followed with a full stop
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

"In our opinion, 'insight' can never be a satisfactory explanation for an animal's innovative performance." (von Bayern, Heathcote, Rutz, & Kacelnik, 2009)

Reference list entry

von Bayern, A. M. P., Heathcote, R. J. P., Rutz, C., & Kacelnik, A. (2009). The role of experience in problem solving and innovative tool use in crows. Current Biology, 19(22), 1965-1968. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.037

Journal articles (printed)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of journal - italicised
  • Volume number - italicised
  • Issue number in parentheses followed by comma. Only include issue numbers when each issue in a volume starts at page one (paginated)
  • Page numbers Follow with a full stop

In-text citation

"When Stan Lee created the Spiderman comic he probably did not imagine that one day it would inspire unaccountable government programs that would limit the mobility of immigrants within the United States." (Koulish, 2015, p.84)

Reference list entry

Koulish, R. (2015). Spiderman’s Web and the Governmentality of Electronic Immigrant Detention. Law, Culture and the Humanities, 11(1), 83-108.

Newspapers print/online

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year and date of publication (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
  • Sub-title preceded by a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • Title of newspaper -  italicised
  • Volume number if applicable -  italicised
  • Issue number - in round brackets
  • Page numbers if applicable Followed with a full stop
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online.

In-text citation

Fritz (2017, July 11). describes the emergence of TV as the death of the feature film as an ascribed definition.

Reference list entry

Fritz, B. (2017, Jul 11). The end of the feature film; analysis: In the age of netflix movies, HBO TV shows and marvel big-screen series, the 120-year-old definition of a feature film is defunct. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from https://manchester.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1917726822?accountid=1225

 

Online videos (vimeo, youtube)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each - and/or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month date in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title of the video - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Video file]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

"Criminology is about understanding crime and criminal nature". (Yeti Creative, 2017)

Reference list entry

Yeti Creative. (2017, January 05). The University of Manchester - Criminology. [Online Video] Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/198200931

Press release (online)

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each. and or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month day in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Press release]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL if viewed online

In-text citation

...(The Alex Foundation, 2007)

 

Reference list entry

The Alex Foundation. (2007). Alex the African grey parrot and subject of landmark studies of bird intelligence dies at 31 [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.alexfoundation.org/press_release.html

Podcast

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma. Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each. and or [Screen name]
  • Year: Publication year, month day in parentheses followed by full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • [Audio/Video podcast]
  • doi: or Retrieved from URL

In-text citation

(Seftel & Sweet, 2011)

Reference list entry

Seftel, J. & Sweet, J. (Producers). (2011, June 24). Profile: Irene Pepperberg & Alex [Video podcast].
Retrieved from http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/rss/media/nsn_v_pod_PepperbergProfile_110624.m4

Theses

Required elements

  • Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
  • Initials: In capitals with full-stop after each.
  • Year: Publication year (not printing or impression) in parentheses followed by a full stop.
  • Title - italicised
  • Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of the full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
  • Degree statement
  • Degree awarding body
  • Location

In-text citation

Research by Naude (1992) suggested that buying behaviour by organisations…

Reference list entry

Naude, P. (1992). Modelling organisational buying behaviour incorporating judgemental methods. (Unpublished PhD thesis). Manchester Business School, Manchester, UK.

Websites (general)

When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.

In-text citation

The University of Manchester Library website is a great place to start to find information to support your studies (www.manchester.ac.uk/library).

(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010)

Reference list entry

Not required.

 

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